In this article, we describe in more detail the basic factors that must be considered for the proper selection of adhesive for ceramic tiles. At the end, we also provide instructions on the correct preparation and application of the adhesive, so that the necessary bond is already created between the base and the ceramic tile cover.
So what is the way to choose the right adhesive? First, we select a reliable brand and in it an adhesive that meets the requirements of a specific implementation.
The main factors that influence the choice Types of glue
Before choosing the type of glue and starting to lay ceramic tiles, you should at least examine the basic factors that affect the performance of work and take them into account during implementation.
These factors are:
- type and characteristics of the base,
- properties and shape of the tile,
- room characteristics, purpose and loads,
- time from execution to useful loading,
- Climatic conditions during the execution of works.
If these factors are truly respected, the risks of errors and associated repairs will be greatly reduced, if not eliminated.
Type and properties of the base
One of the most important factors affecting the choice of adhesive for gluing ceramic tiles is the substrate. Based on the data on the properties of the substrate, it is possible to determine whether the substrate should be treated before gluing ceramic tiles and what procedures and products should be processed. It is important that the base on which ceramic tiles are glued is solid, clean, dry, flat, old enough and mature, especially when it comes to the texture of cement, concrete or gypsum. The substrate shrinks during drying. If ceramic tiles are glued to an insufficiently mature substrate, then there is a high probability that during drying and shrinkage associated with the substrate, the finished coating will begin to peel off due to excessive stresses. This phenomenon can be prevented in some cases by using S2 deformation class cement adhesives (eg elastorapidAnd the ULTRALIITE drape). The choice of the appropriate adhesive is also influenced by whether the ceramic tiles will be laid on horizontal or vertical surfaces. For laying ceramic tiles on vertical surfaces, it is appropriate to use a low-slip adhesive (T-mark). T-marked adhesives (eg Crabund TAnd the ADESILEX P9And the Craflex) allows us to stick ceramic tiles on vertical surfaces from top to bottom without creep.
Tile properties and shape
When choosing a suitable adhesive, the characteristics and shape of the tiles to be laid are also important. Porcelain tiles are known to have very low, and almost no, absorption. For laying such a tile, it is necessary to choose an improved glue of class C2 (eg Craflex). These adhesives contain a large amount of polymer additives that provide the necessary bond between the substrate and the non-absorbent ceramic tile.
For ceramic tiles of larger dimensions (40 x 40 cm and larger), due to the greater effect of expansion and contraction, it is necessary to choose an adhesive of deformation class S1 (eg Craflex Maxi S1) or even deformation class S2 )ULTRALIITE drape). For the easiest and most reliable gluing of large tiles, it is recommended to use adhesives with a thicker layer, especially in cases of unevenness of the base. Thicker layer adhesives allow application on a substrate of up to 15 mm, and some even on vertical surfaces without slipping (eg. Craflex Maxi S1)
Features of space, purpose and loads
Ceramic tiles are laid on the interior and exterior horizontal and vertical surfaces. Indoor conditions are usually constant with slight temperature differences. Absorbent ceramic tiles and C1 ordinary cement adhesives are generally adequate for loads in residential buildings (eg crabund T).
If the paint is subjected to chemical loads, we must check whether we can use cement-based adhesive. If the chemical loads are too large, then we should use an acid-resistant adhesive based on reaction resins. These adhesives are marked with an R (eg KERAPOXY Glue).
Larger temperature differences can occur in floors with built-in heating and in rooms with high humidity, up to the possibility of their saturation (steam baths, saunas, etc.). In such cases, due to the listed loads, which cause shrinkage and stretching of the base and coating, it is necessary to use adhesives with suitable susceptibility to deformation (eg CRAFLEX MAXI S1 And the ULTRALIITE drape).
Time from execution to payload
When choosing an adhesive for gluing ceramic tiles, the time available to carry out the work is also important. Nowadays, it is often important that the time to carry out the work be as short as possible. The time until the building can be usable can be greatly shortened by using fast-setting cement adhesives marked F. Use of quick-setting adhesives (eg. ADESILEX P9 EXPRESSAnd the GranaryRapidAnd the elastorapid) allows paint filler after only a few hours, building use and full surface loading after only 24 hours.
When all the described factors are known, a suitable adhesive can be selected. Most of the time, several of them are suitable and there is no need to choose the best among them. It is necessary to choose a sufficiently good glue that meets all the requirements and also has a suitable ratio between the price and the properties of the glue.
Preparation and application of tile adhesive
However, a reliable manufacturer is not enough for the glue to do its job. Proper preparation and application of the adhesive is also required. Mixing with a strictly defined amount of mixing water should be done at low mixer speeds with suitable mixing length, in two steps with intermediate curing of the adhesive.
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